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verticalrule.jpg - 1514 Bytes The specimens collected by Joseph Dalton Hooker account for 31 of the specimens in the scrapbook. They were acquired during the expeditions of the ships Erebus and Terror, and were collected from the Falkland Islands, Hermite Island, Cape Horn, and Kerguelen.

The specimens collected by Joseph Woods account for 36 of the specimens in the scrapbook. They were collected from locations on the continent, such as Col du Tourmalet and Bareges in the Pyrenees Mountains, Mt. Cenis and Mt. Venton in the French Alps, and Mt. Testaccio in Rome.

A small number of other specimens in the scrapbook were collected by H. Bonar, W.C. Hewitson, and Robert Brown.



Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) was born at Halesworth, Suffolk 30 of June 1817. He was the second son of the well known botanist Sir William Jackson Hooker. As a child Hooker keenly pursued botany and entomology. He hoped to travel the world someday and was greatly inspired by Captain James Cook's travels. "...my great delight was to sit on my grandfather's knee and look at the pictures in Cook's 'Voyages'. The one that took my fancy most was the plate of Christmas Harbour, Kerguelen Land, with the arched rock standing out to sea, and sailors killing penguins; and I thought I should be the happiest boy alive if ever I would see that wonderful arched rock, and knock penguins on the head." Hooker was educated at Glasgow High School and Glasgow University where he attended his father's lectures on botany. He graduated in 1839 after completing his MD.

Hooker began his career in botany immediately after his graduation in 1839 as he accompanied Captain Sir James Ross on his Antarctic voyage. Before his journey Charles Lyell gave Hooker proofs of Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle. Hooker's work was greatly inspired by Charles Darwin. He made Darwin's acquaintance in 1839 and they became life-long friends. Between 1839-1843 the Antarctic expedition took Hooker through Cape of Good Hope, Kerguelen Island, Tasmania, Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, Victoria Barrier, Sydney, New Zealand ,Cape Horn, Falkland Islands, Hermite Island off Tierra del Fuego and it even gave Hooker the opportunity to experience his childhood dream of seeing Kerguelen Land.

The botanical publications made based on his travels are numerous. "The botany of the antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years of 1839-1843, under the command of Captain Sir James Clark Ross, Kt., R.N., F.R.S. &c. by Joseph Dalton Hooker M.D., R.N., F.L.S., assistant surgeon of the Erebus and botanist to the expedition" was published in three parts between 1844-1860 after Hooker's journey to the Antarctic. It included Flora antarctica, Flora novae-zelandie, and Flora Tasmaniae. The Antarctic expedition was the first of Hooker's many travels around the world. Between 1847-1851 Hooker journeyed through the Middle East to India from where he continued his exploration into Nepal, the Himalayas and Tibet. This led to the publication of Flora Indica, Himalayan Journals and Flora of British India. His other works include Handbook to the Ceylon Flora, Student's Flora of the British Isles and many more. In 1857 Hooker worked with George Bentham to devise a system of classification for plants. This lead to the publication of Genera Plantarum, which was completed in 1883. In 1881 Hooker initiated work on the Index Kewensis with the aid of Charles Darwin.

During the time his father was Director and he the Assistant Director, Joseph Hooker made a great contributuion to building The Royal Botanical Gardens through his scientific work. His father William made a great adminstrative contribution to building Kew. Joseph Hooker was primarily a taxonomist and a phytogeographer throughout his life. In 1865 he succeeded his father as director of Kew. In addition to his responsibilities as Director of Kew (1865-85) Hooker was the president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1868) and President of the Royal Society (1873-1878). He gained many prestigious awards and honorary degrees. In 1877 Hooker was awarded the K.C.S.I and admitted to the Order of the Star of India.

Hooker retired from his duties at Kew in 1885 but continued to be an active botanist. Joseph Hooker died on 30 of December 1911.

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Joseph Woods
Joseph Woods (1776-1864) was born in Stoke Newington, Middlesex, England on 24 August 1776. He was the second son of Joseph and Margaret Woods. As a child, he was educated at home and mastered Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, Italian, and Modern Greek.

Disliking his initial occupation in business, Woods studied architecture under Daniel Asher Alexander at the age of sixteen. In 1806 he founded the London Architectural Society and became the first president. However, even while occupied with his profession, he devoted much time to geology and botany.

The end of the Napoleonic Wars permitted him to travel throughout the continent. In 1816, after travelling through France, Switzerland, and Italy, Woods completed one of his most prominent works, “Letters of an Architect,” which was published in 1828. He retired from architecture in 1835 and thereafter devoted his time mainly to botany.

His work on the genus Rosa , “Synopsis of the British Species of Rosa” was published in the Transactions of the Linnean Society in 1818 and established Woods’ reputation as a systematic botanist. The botanical notes made during his Continental and British excursions were published in the Companion to the Botanical Magazine in 1835 and in 1836, and in successive volumes of Phytologist beginning in 1843. His work The Tourist’s Flora: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the British Islands, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the Italian Islands published in 1850, was based on his many years of work in Europe and the British Isles.

Woods contributed work to the fields of architecture, botany, and geology. He was a Fellow of the Linnean Society, a Fellow of the Geological Society, a Member of the Society of Antiquaries, and an Honorary Member for the Society of British Architects.

Robert Brown (1773-1858) named a genus of British ferns, Woodsia, in his honour. An Irish Jungermannia, first discovered by Woods, was also named in his honour by Sir W.J. Hooker.

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Horatius Bonar
Horatius Bonar (1808-1889) was born in Edinburgh on 19 December 1808. He was a licensed preacher, a minister, and a hymn-writer. Bonar contributed to and published many religious works including The Desert of Sinai: Notes of a Journey from Cairo to Beersheba in 1857, and The Land of Promise: Notes of a Spring Journey from Beersheba to Sidon in 1858, that detail his journeys on which he may have collected the specimens from Palestine that are in the scrapbook.

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William Chapman Hewitson
William Chapman Hewitson (1806-1878) was born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne on 9 January 1806. He was a naturalist and collected British coleoptera and lepidoptera, as well as birds’ eggs, and purchased specimens from travellers throughout the world. Hewitson was a member of the Entomological Society in 1846, the Zoological Society in 1859, and the Linnean Society in 1862, and contributed to and published many works on entomology and ornithology.

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Robert Brown
Robert Brown (1774-1853), president of the Linnean Society from 1843-1853, was a well-known English botanist. Upon his death J.D. Hooker wrote that Brown was "paramount as a Botanist and in every respect a sage, philosopher and his love of truth in science and devotion to truth was never surpassed." This scrapbook contains one specimen given to Adam White by Robert Brown.


Sources of information on Joseph Dalton Hooker consulted in preparing this page include:

Allan, M. (1967). The Hookers of Kew. London: Michael Joseph Ltd.

Ray, D. (1999). Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker Traveller and Plant Collector. England: Antique Collectors' Club Ltd.

Stafleu, F. A. & R. S. Cowan. from 1976. Taxonomic Literature II. Regnum Vegetabile 94 et seq.

Turrill, W.B. (1963). Joseph Dalton Hooker Botanist, Explorer, and Administrator. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.

Sources of information on Joseph Woods consulted in preparing this page include:

Anonymous, 1864. Botanical News. Journal of Botany p. 62-64, 96.

Boulger, G.S., 1900. Woods, Joseph in Dictionary of National Biography Vol. 62 (S. Lee, ed.), Smith, Elder & Co., London. [p. 409]

Desmond, R., 1977. Dictionary of British, and Irish Botanists, and Horticulturists. Taylor & Francis, Ltd., London. [p. 675]

Jackson, B.D., 1901. A list of the collectors whose plants are in the herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Kew Bulletin 190:1-80.

Sources of information on Horatius Bonar consulted in preparing this page include:

Bayne, T., 1891. Bonar, Horatius in Dictionary of National Biography Supplement, Vol. 1 (S. Lee, ed.), Smith, Elder, & Co., London. [p. 231-232]

Sources of information on W.C. Hewitson consulted in preparing this page include:

Nicholson, A., 1891. Hewitson, William Chapman in Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 26 (S. Lee, L. Stephen, eds.) Smith, Elder & Co., London. [p. 307-308]

Sources of information on Robert Brown consulted in preparing this page are:

Stevens, P.F. (1997) On amateurs and professionals in British botany in 1858 - J.D. Hooker on Bentham, Brown, and Lindley. Harvard Papers in Botany, 2:125-132.


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This site is the product of a Research Opportunity Program 299Y Project carried out by T.Kovinthan and M.Tse in the Department of Botany of the University of Toronto during the 2001-2002 academic year. The work was done in the Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology of the Royal Ontario Museum under the supervision of T.A. Dickinson, curator of the ROM Green Plant Herbarium (TRT). The Adam White scrapbooks are part of the Green Plant Herbarium's collection of Victorian and later scrapbook herbaria.

Text© T.Kovinthan, M.Tse, Images© 2001 Royal Ontario Museum
Please send your comments to tim.dickinson@utoronto.ca

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